Иностранные языки : Куча топиков по английскому языку - (реферат)
Куча топиков по английскому языку - (реферат)
Дата добавления: март 2006г.
Holidays in Great Britain.
There are some holidays in G. B. They are Christmas day, Boxing Day, new years day, Easter, mayday, spring bank holiday and simmer bank holiday. Public holidays in G. B. are called bank holidays because the banks as wall as most of the offices and shops are closed. The most popular holiday is Xmas. Every year the people of Norway give the city of London the present. It is a big Xmas tree and it stands in Trufalger square. Central streets are beautifully decorated. Before Xmas groups of singers go from house to house. They collect money for charity and sing carols traditional Xmas songs. Many churches hold a carol serves on the Sunday before Xmas. The fun starts the night before, on the 24 of December. This is the day when people decorate their trees. Children hang stocking at the end of their beds, hoping that Santa Claus will come at night and full them with toys and sweets. Xmas is a family holiday. Relatives’prepare for the big Xmas dinner of turkey and Xmas pudding and every one gives and gets presents. The 26 of December, Boxing Day are an extra holiday after Xmas. This is the time to meet friends or sit at home and watch TV. New years day is less popular in Britain then Xmas. Besides public holidays there are some special holidays in Britain. One of them takes place on the 5 of November. On that day in 1605 Guy Fawkes tried to blow up the House of Parliament and kill a King James the first. But he didn’t succeeded. The King’s man found the bomb and took Guy Fawkes to the tower. Sins what day the British celebrate the 5 of November.
There are also smaller holidays in G. B.
Mike Lomonosov is the father of the Russian sciences and outstanding poet the founder of Russian literature. M. L. was born in 1711 in Arhangelsk province. He liked to spend his time fishing with his father. He began to read him self then he was a little boy. He wanted to study and then he was 19 he went on foot to Moscow. He decided to enter the Slavic-Greek-Lateen academy. He entered it and six ears later in 1736 he was sent abroad to complete his studies in chemistry and mining. L worked hard and he became a great scientist. He was a physicist a painter and astronomer, a geographer a historian and a states man. M. L. made a telescope; he observed a lot of stars and planets with his telescope. L wrote a first scientific grammar of Russian language. He wrote many poems. L build a factory near Petersburg. It was a factory there glass was produced. He made a portrait of Peter the first of pieces of glass. L was a founder of the first Russian University. This University is named after L and it is situated in Moscow. M. L was died in 1765 but people know and remember him.
Moscow is a capital of Russia, it’s political, economic, commercial and cultural center. It was founded 8 centuries age by Prince Yuri Dolgoruky. Gradually the city becomes more and more powerful. In the 16th century Ivan the Terrible Moscow become the capital of the new united state. Now Moscow is one of the largest cities in Europe. Its total area is about nine hundred square kilometers. Population of the city is over 8 million. Moscow is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. The heart of the Moscow is Red Square. It is more historic associations than any other place in Moscow. The main Kremlin tower, the Spasskaya Tower, has become a symbol of the country. On the territory of the Kremlin you can see old cathedrals, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Grate, the Palace of Congress, the Tzar-Cannon and the Tzar-Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world. There are a lot of beautiful places, cathedrals, churches and monuments in Moscow. There are more then 80 museums in Moscow. The largest museums are Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and the State Tretyakov Gallery. Moscow is famous for it’s theaters. The best-known of the is Bolshoi Opera House. Drama theaters and studios are also very popular. Moscow is a city of the students. There are over 80 higher educational institutions in it.
I am Zhilin Andrey. Andrey is my name and Zhilin is my surname. I am seventeen years old. I want to tell you a few words about my family. My family is not large. I have got mother, father and grandmother. There are four of us in the family.
First of all some words about my parents. My mother is a teacher of biology. She works in a school. She likes her profession. She is a good-looking woman with brown hair. She is 44 but she looks much younger.
My father is computer-programmer. He is forty-six. My father often sings and when we are at home and have some free time I play the guitar and we sing together. He is also handy with many things. When he was small he liked to take everything to pieces. My grandmother told me a story that ones my father tried to repair their kitchen clock but with out success. They had to give it to a repairman. But it happened a long time ago. Now he can fix almost everything. My parents have been married for 18 ears. They have much in common, but they have different views on music, books, and films. For example my father likes horror films and my mother likes soap operas. My father is fond of tennis. My mother doesn’t go in for sports.
My parents are hard working people. My mother keeps house and takes care of my father and me. She is very good at cooking. My grandmother is a pensioner. She lives with us and helps to run the house. She is fond of knitting. I want to become a student. I’d like to learn foreign languages. I always try to be in a good mood. We have got a lot of relatives.
My favorite TV program.
The most popular entertainment in our home life is television. We have a choice between five channels ORT, RTR and 3 commercial channels. There is also a cable TV station in our town. Television plays an important role in our life. It informs people about current events both national and international, the latest achievements in science and culture, and offers some programs, which are both interesting and stimulating. Every day we can see different tips of programs on TV. News is broadcast at regular intervals. They also present operas, ballets, music concerts and various shows. Broadcast for schools are produced on five days of the week, during school hours. In the late afternoon and early evening TV channels showed special programs for children. In the evenings and at weekends there are broadcasts of sports events. A large time of TV evening’s time is occupied by films and serials, but as for me I like quizzes. A quizzes–program is a question and an answer competition which offers money and other prizes and to the winners. Such programs as “Wonders field”, “Brain ring”, What, Where, When”, “Guess the melody” are me favorite ones, because they are both informative and interesting. But bast of all I like the programs of “Travels club”, because it gives me a chance to travel of other the world with out living home. Far away countries and their customs and traditional are come into my living room.
I live in a 5-stored block of flats in Yushno – Sakhalinsk. It’s not a very picturesque plaice but we have a yard and a Kodak Express under the window.
My flat is on the third floor. It’s very comfortable and well planed. I have all modern conveniences, such as central heating, electricity, cold and hot running water and a telephone. There are three rooms, a kitchen, a bathroom and a balcony in it. The largest room in my flat is the living room. My family uses it as a siting room. There is a sofa, two armchairs, a coffee table, a TV set and a VSR in it. We have two small rooms in our flat and one of them is my. It is not big but very cosy. There is a wardrobe near the wall and a desk near the window. My bad is at the left corner. I like my room wary much because it is my room. Our kitchen is not very large but light. It’s very well equipped. We have got a refrigerator, a microwave oven, a coffee maker and a toaster. In evenings we like have tea and have rest in it. My school.
I had just left school and I would like to tell you a few words about it. I went to school in 1988. This school I studied in is a three stored building. When you enter the school yard you can see poplar trees and beautiful flowers. To the right of the school building there is a big playground. When the weather was fine we had our classes in physical training there. When you enter the school you come in to a large hall and a cloak-room, there we left our coats, rain-coats and jackets. On the ground floor where is also a school library and a gym. The class rooms, the assembly hall, the teachers room and the canteen are on the upper floors. On the walls of the corridors you can see the portraits of famous writers, poets, scientists and our school wall newspaper. It is done by the pupils of our school and has a lot of interesting things to read. I learned different subjects at school: Russian, English, maths, physics, chemistry, geography, history and some others.
My favorite subjects were Russian and English. I also liked literature. I was good at these subjects and usually got good marks in them. I worked hard at English lessons: read and translated texts, made up dialogues, did a lot of ex, but bast of all I liked different tests, I was fond of grammar. But I was poor in chemistry. I always failed to learn formulas and terms properly. I liked my class, everybody was so friendly easy to get along with. I was on good terms with my class maids and we often spend our free time together. Seasons.
Winter, spring, summer and autumn are the seasons of the year. December, January and February are winter months The weather is cold usually it snows. The days are short and the nights are long. The rivers and lakes freeze and we can go skating and skiing. March, April and May are spring months. It is very nice season. The weather is fine it is warm. There are many green trees in the streets in the parks and in the yards. Some time it rains but usually the sun shines brightly. The birds return from the hot countries and make their nests. June, July and August are summer months. It is hot or warm. The days are long and the nights are short. There are many nice flowers in the parks and squares in the summer. The pupils do not go to school they have the summer holidays. June is the first month of summer. We have the longest day and the shortest night in the year on the 21st-22nd of June. July is the middle month of summer. It is hot and sun shines brightly. The sky is blue and cloudless. August is the last summer month some times it is cold in August, but it is many mushrooms, berries and fruits. September, October and November are autumn months. The weather is changeable. It often rains. You can see yellow, red, brown leaves everywhere. It is time for gathering the harvest.
Cites of the USA.
Amounts large and famous American cites are Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, San Francisco and New York. Washington is the capital of the USA. It is situated on the Potomac River in the District of Columbia. D. Washington chose the place. The city was founded in 1791 and named after the first president. Now Washington is the residents of the president and the congress. The center of the city is on Capital Hill. This building houses both the senate and a House of Representatives. The White House is one of the oldest buildings in the city. It is the president’s residents. Washington is a large scientific and cultural center. There are five universities in the city. The national academy of sciences and the library of congress are in Washington too. The national museum, the old and new national galleries of art, Washington, Jefferson and Lincoln memorials are among the city sites.
New York is the largest city in USA. It is an economic, financial, scientific and cultural center. Dutch settlers founded the city in 17 century. The heart of the New York is Manhattan. It was hear that the Dutch built the first building of the town. The name Wall Street remained from our days. The business center of New York is near Wall Street. Another famous street is Broadway. It is the longest and the widest street in New York. It is the street there most famous theaters are situated. New York is the city of famous skyscrapers. The highest buildings are Impure State Building and the united national building.
Sports in our life.
Sport is very important in our life. It is popular among young and old people. Many people do morning exercises, jog in the morning, train them self’s in clubs and different sections. Other people like sport too; they only watch sports game on TV and listen the sports news. Whey prefers reading interesting stores about sports men but they do not go in for sports.
Physical training is an important subject in school. Pupils have physical training twice a week. Boys and girls play volleyball and basketball at the lessons. There is a sport ground near our school and school children go in for sports in the open air. A lot of different competitions are held at school. A great number of pupils take part in them. All participants try to get good results and become winner.
Sport helps people to keep in good health. If you go in for sports you don’t catch cold. Children and grown-ups must take care of they health and do morning exercises regularly. There are some popular kinds of sport in our country: football, volleyball, hockey, gymnastics, skiing and other. Athletic is one of the most popular kinds of sport. It includes running, jamming and others.
My favorite sport is swimming. I go to the swimming pool twice a week. I prefer to rest by the lake or river and swim there. My friend goes in for boxing. He is a good boxer. His hobby helps him in his every day life. The Commonwealth of Australia.
The Commonwealth of Australia is a self-government federal state. It has six states: new south Wales, Victoria, Queens land, south Australia, western Australia and two internal territories. It is situated in the southwestern of the Pacific Ocean. The area of this country has 7000000 square kilometers. Australia is the largest island in the world and the smallest continent. The Dutch were the first Europeans to visit Australia. In the 1770 the English captain James Cook discovered the East Coast of Australia. Nearly 20 millions people live in Australia. The capital of the country is Canberra, this city become a capital in 1927. Federal government works in Canberra in the government buildings. There are no industrial plants in the town. The population of Canberra is about 300 000 people. There are many sits in the city. They are the buildings of Australian academy of sings, the Australian national university and others. There are two big industrial cities in Australia: Sydney and Melbourne. Australian climate is dry and warm. Australia is situated in the Southern Hemisphere and that is why it has summer when we have winter. January is the hottest month in Australia.
Australia is separated from many countries. The animals in Australia have developed differently. They are interesting. You can see the dingo, wild dog which killed others animals in night, the kangaroo and many parrots there. There are many and lakes in the country. Australia is an industrial country. It has coil, nickel, zinc and gold. Australia is one of the most important produces of metals and minerals. It exports wool production, meat, fruit and sugar. The Australia is situated near the ocean. Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane are the ports of the country. There are many universities, theaters and museums in Australia. There are some political parties in Australia: the liberal party, the labor party and two socialist parties of Australia.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on two large islands called the British Isles. The larger island is Great Britain, which consists of three parts: England, Scotland and Wales. The smaller island is Ireland and there are about five thousand small islands. The country’s shores are washed by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the Irish Sea. The English channel separate Great Britain from the continent.
The total area of the U. K. is 244. 00 square kilometers with a population of 56 million. It is one of the most populated countries in the world. The average density of population is very high: about 220 people per square kilometer. The greater part of the population is urban. About 80 percent of people live in numerous towns and cities. More then seven million people live in London area. Very often the inhabitants of The United Kingdom and Northern Ireland are called English.
The surface of the British Isles varies very mach. There are many mountains in Scotland, Wales and northwest of England but they are not very high. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain. The northern part of Scotland is mountainous and is called the Highlands. Scotland is also famous for its beautiful lakes, which are called Lochs.
The mountains in G. B. are not very high. There are many rivers in G. B. , but they are not very long. The Themes is the deepest, the longest and the most important river in England.
The climate of G. B. is mild. It is not very cold in winter and hot in summer. The average temperature in January is about 5C above zero. February is the coldest month in the year. The summers are cool and rainy. July is the warmest month. There is much rain and flog in autumn and winter. October is the rainiest month in the year.
The USA is composed of 50 states. It occupies the central part of North American continent. It borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south.
The waters of the Atlantic Ocean wash the USA in the east and the waters of the Pacific Ocean wash the country in the west. The Hawaiian Islands are in the Pacific Ocean. They became the 50thstate of the USA in 1958. The total area of the country is 9000 square kilometers. The population is more then 200 million people. Washington is the capital of USA. English is the official language. The flag of the USA known as the “Stars and Stripes”.
The Rocky Mountains extend from Alaska through the USA to Mexico, but greater part of the country is a plain. Where are many rivers in USA and the longest is Mississippi. The country has every variety of climates: from climate of the tropics to that of the Atlantic regions. The USA economy grew greatly during the world wars. When big American monopolists got great profits. The country is rich in mineral resources, heavy industry prevails in the USA economy, including mining metallurgical, machine building, chemical industries. Light and food industries are wheel developed too.
The USA is the federate republic. The president is the heard of the state. He is also commander–in –chief of army and navy. The highest legislative organ in the country is the congress, which consists of the senate and House of Representatives.