Иностранные языки : Английский (11 класс) - (реферат)
Английский (11 класс) - (реферат)
Дата добавления: март 2006г.
Английский /11 класс/
The official name of this country is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is divided into four parts: England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland. The British Isles are group of islands lying off the north -west coast of the continent of Europe. England, Wales and Scotland are in Great Britain, Northern Ireland is situated in the north-easten part of Ireland. There are no high mountains, no very long rivers, no great forest in U. K. The climate of the British Isles is not very cold in winter and never hot in summer. The population of the U. K. is almost fifty six million. Britain is an industrial country. A lot of things such as clothes, food, planes, cars and many others are made in U. K. In the U. K. there are a lot of cattle-farms. The U. K. is a parlamentary manarchy. Great Britain is a capitalist country.
YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS OF BRITAIN.
There were numerous different youth organizations in Britain. Some were large, and some small, some nation-wide and some local. Probably the largest were the Boy Scouts and Girls Guides Associations and the YMCA (Young Men's Christian Association), and the YWCA (Young Women's Christian Association) or simply "y" for short. The Boy Scouts and the Girls Guides were for scool-age teen-agers and the YMCA and the YWCA were for scool-leavers, college students and young people who had already started working Boy Scouts and Girls Guides had to do one good deed every day, to develop themselves mentally and physically. In summer they went camping in tents with everything done by young people themselves. At the YMCA and the YWCA more attention was paid for sport and different social events, such as outing in the country, dances, debates, amateur activities, etc.
These organizations were founded in the nineteenth century. Officialy they were non-political, but in reality they aimed not to let young people think about social and political problems in their country, to bring them up in the spirit of nationalizm. Boy Scouts and Girs Guides, for example, promised to be true to the king (queen) and had to salute the British flag at their meetings.
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and cultural centre. It is situated on the both banks of the Thames. London is one of the largest cities in the world. It's population is more than 9 million people. London was founded more then twenty centuries ago.
The East End includes the poorer districts, the industrial center, the port, the London docks. The streets here are narrow and dirty, the houses are poor. Working class families live here. London is famous for its wonderful places of interest such as the British Museum, the Tower of London, Buckingham Palace, and many others.
Sightseenings of London.
The Tower of London is the most famous of all the historical buildings in London. It stands today almost unchanged since first it was built in the 11th centure. In the past the Tower of London served both as a palace and as a state prison, but it is only a museum today.
St Paul's Cathedral is the greatest work of England's greatest architector Christopher Wren. The cathedral was begun in 1675 . It was opened in 1697 but was finished only in 1710, when Wren was almost eighy years old. There are memorials to many famous men of England in the Cathedral.
Trafalgar Square is in the centre of the West End of London. On the north side is the National Gallery; in the north-east corner is the National Portrait Gallery, and in the centre is Nelson's Column with the figure of the great seamen.
Trafalgar Square is the place where mass meetings and demonstrations for peace and for working people's rights take place.
"Big Ben" is the name of the great bell which strikes the hour. It is in the clock Tower of the Houses of Parlament.
Westminster Abbey is the historic building in London to which every visitor sooner or later goes. The Abbey was founded in the 11th centure. Many of Great Britain's famous men are buried in Westminster Abbey.
Piccadilli Circus is a square in the central part of London. London's best-known theatres and cinemas and most famous restaurants are on Piccadilly Circus. In the square you can see people of many nationalities and hear a lot of different languages.
Hyde Park is the largest park in the West End of London. In the 19th century it became a popular place for public meetings.
The British Museum is one of the largest museums in the world. It consists of the National Library and Museum of History, Archaelogy, Art and Ethnography.
Protection of Environment.
With the development of civilization man's interference in nature grows up. It leads to different negative factors are: the pollution of water, air, soil and the destruction of the ozone layer.
This problem must be solved if we want to preserve life on our planet. This problem is global problem that's why all countries of the world, all people, young and old, must take an active part in the protection of natural resources rationly. Factoriyes and plants must have purification systems to preserve the purity of water, air and soil.
We must take care of plants, trees, animals, birds and fishes, especially of those that are dying out.
We also have a Red Book where rare and dying out plants, birds, animals are registered. Though the role of people in the solution of ecological problems has greatly increased, we can't say that we are doing all in our power, to stop harmful processes in preserving the environment.
The folowing radical measures must be taken:
1. The replanting of trees that have been cut down;
2. Nuclear tests should be stopped;
3. Purificution systems must be installed at plants and factories; 4. Natural resources should be used more rationally;
5. Rare and dying out birds, animals and plant's should be protected; 6. Precaution measures should be taken against the destruction of the ozone layer.
Sport holds an important place in our life. When we listen to the radio in the morning, we can always hear sport news. When we open a newspaper, we can always find information about some game or other or an article about our favourite kind of sports.
Television programmes about sport are also very popular, and we can watch something interesting every day.
Sport helps people to keep in good health. Sport also makes us more organized in our daily activities.
National game and sports competitions are popular in our country. People go in for many kinds of sports. There are sports grounds near every school, every institute, every factory and plant. Besides there are sports clubs and sport school in every town. Many people go there for training.
As to me I go in for table-tennis. I like this kind of sport. My friend likes table-tennis too. We often play it both. There are many sport teams at school. They are a football team, a voley-ball team, a basket-ball team, a table-tennis team.
1. Does sport hold an inportant place in our life?
2. What can we always hear, when we listen to the radio?
3. What can we alway find, when we open a newspaper?
4. Are television programmes about sports also very popular? 5. Does sport help people to keep in good health?
6. Does sport also make us more organized in our daily activities? 7. Are National game and sports competitions popular in our county?
8. Who go in for many kinds of sports?
9. Are there sports grounds near every school, every institute, every factory and plants? 10. Are there sports clubs and sports school in every town? 11. Do many people go there the training? 12. What kind of sports do i go in for? 13. I like this kind of sport, don't I? 14. Does my friend like table-tennis too? 15. How do we often play it? 16. Are there many sport teams at school? 17. What teams are at school?
Modern life is impossible without travelling. Thousands of people travel every day either on bussines or for pleasure. They can travel by air, by rail, by see or by road.
Travelling by air is the fastest and the most convinient way, but it is the most expensive too. To my mind travelling by train is more interesting. You can see interesting places of the country you are travellin throught. Modern trains have very comfortable seats. There are also sleeping carriages and a diningcarrige which make even the longest journey enjoyable. Travelling by sea is very popular. On board of ship you can enjoy your trip. There are tennis and badminton grounds, a swimming-pool, a sinema and a dancing hall there. Some people prefer travelling by car. If you heve your own car you may go to the Black Sea, where there are a lot of rest-houses, sanatoriums and tourist camps. In the daytime you can have a nice opportunity to play voleyball, swim in the warm water of the sea and sunbathe. In the evening you like to sit on the beach watching the sea and enjoying the sunset. As for me I'm a hiker. I like to go on a hike to the mountins or to the forest. You go agree with me that it is pleasant to gather mushrooms and berries in the forest, swim in the river, make a fire and prepare meals on it. On my week-end I take a tent, a rucksack and go to railway station take the train. In an hour I find myself out of noisy city. The air is fresh, birds sing their merry songs. To make my long story short I'd like to say that travelling is one of my hobbies. Travelling helps me to see to coutry-side better, to know about customs and traditions of the Republic, to meet people and make friends with them.
My favorit season.
There are four seasons in the year. There are winter, spring, summer and autumn. My favorit season is summer, because I was born in summer. It is warm and sometimes hot. There are many fruits, berries and vegatables. In summer I can spend my time on the beach of lakes and rivers. I swim in lakes and rivers. I can drive my bicycle and our car. We go to the forest for looking for berries and mushrooms. We go to Slonim for a month. My grandmother and grandfather live there. My sister and I help them in the garden. And of course I like Summer very much because there is the longest holiday in summer.
My Working Day.
I am Andrew Kiporuk. I am a puple of the 10th form. I get ut ap 7 o'clock. I wash myself and dress. I make a bed. My friend come to me at half past 7 and we go to the school. At school I have 7 lessons. I come back home at 3 o'clock. I have dinner. Then I walk with my dog. Then Help my mother at home. Sometime go for shopping, pour the flowers. I begin to do my homework at 5 o'clock. I watch TV very seldom, because I have many home task. Sometime I sit at my computer. Sometime Andrey Saynov comes to me. We talk about our school business. He studied in colledge. I listen to the music very often. I have supper at 7 o'clock. After 8 o'clock my brothers come to me. And we play on the computer. At 10 o'clock I go to bed.