рефераты рефераты
 пароль:  Регистрация 

Государство и право
Гражданское право и процесс
Детали машин
Дистанционное образование
Жилищное право
Компьютерные сети
Конституционное право зарубежныйх стран
Конституционное право России
Краткое содержание произведений
Криминалистика и криминология
Литература языковедение
Маркетинг реклама и торговля
Международные отношения и мировая экономика
Менеджмент и трудовые отношения
Начертательная геометрия
Оккультизм и уфология
Программирование и комп-ры
Психология - рефераты
Религия - рефераты
Социология - рефераты
Физика - рефераты
Философия - рефераты
Финансы деньги и налоги
Экология и охрана природы
Экономика и экономическая теория
Экономико-математическое моделирование
Этика и эстетика
Литература зарубежная
Литература русская
Историческая личность
Иностранные языки
Цифровые устройства
Компьютерные науки
Управленческие науки
Психология педагогика
Промышленность производство
Краеведение и этнография
Религия и мифология
Информатика программирование
Физкультура и спорт
Английский язык
Безопасность жизнедеятельности
Банковское дело
Биржевое дело
Бухгалтерский учет и аудит
Валютные отношения

Главная > География > Alaska

География : Alaska


Ministry of Education of the Ukraine

Section: Area stadies

Topic: Alaska

Done by Lena Kozachenok

201 gr.

Kyev 1998


Origins of Alaska’s Native Groups

No one knows exactly when people first found the land that would be

called Alaska.

Some anthropologists believe that people migrated from Asia to North

America as long as 40,000 years ago. Others argue it was as recent as

15,000 years ago.

Whenever, the consensus is that they came from Asia by way of a

northern land bridge that once connected Siberia and Alaska.

That land bridge, now recalled as Beringia, was the first gateway to

Alaska. But these first visitors were hardly tourists intent on exploring

new worlds. Rather they were simply pursuing their subsistence way of life

as they followed great herds of grazing mammals across the grassy tundra

and gentle steppes of Beringia.

They came sporadically through many millennia.. in waves of different

ethnic backgrounds/generations of people and animals..hunters and hunted.

As the Ice Age drew to an end and the seas claimed the land, these people

moved to higher and drier places--the land that, as the continents drifted

apart, would become Alaska.

Some groups settled in the Arctic. Others traversed the mountain

passes to other parts of Alaska. While still others migrated through

Alaska, continuing on to distant lands--perhaps as far as South America!

Those who made Alaska their permanent home make up the state’s four

major anthropological group: Eskimos, Aleuts, Athabascans, and Northwest

Coast Indians.

While all four groups shared certain basic similarities--all hunted,

fished and gathered food--they developed distinctive cultures and sets of


The Eskimos:

Flexible Residents of the Arctic

The Eskimos were primarily a coastal people, setting along the shores

of the Arctic and Bering seas.

For millennia they lived a simple, subsistence life--much as they

still do today--by harvesting the fish and mammals of the seas, the fruits

and game of the land. Somehow they learned how to thrive despite the

demanding conditions of the Arcitc.

Their sense of direction was keen, almost uncanny. Traveling in a

straight line, sometimes through snowstorms and whiteouts, they found their

way around the mostly featureless terrain by noting wind direction, the

position of the stars, the shape and size of a snowdrift.

And they were resourceful. In a land where the summer sun stays at eye-

level for weeks on end, never setting below the horizon, the Eskimos

fashioned the first sun-visor--which also doubled as a snowmask to protect

their eyes from the wind-driven snow!

The Athabascans:

Nomads of the Interior

Like the Eskimos, the Athabascans were skillful hunters, but they

depended more on large land mammals for their subsistence--tracking moose

and migrating caribou.

When it came to fishing, the Athabascans were absolutely ingenious,

snaring fish with hooks, lures, traps and nets that are the fascination of

modern day anglers who visit their camps.

Generally nomadic, they lived in small, simply organized bands of a

few families, and whenever possible pitched their camps in the sheltered

white spruce forests of the Interior. Some adventurous tribes, however,

wandered all the way to the Southwest United States to become kin to the

Navajos and Apaches.


Born of the Sea

For the Aleuts, life centered around the sea as they distributed

themselves among the 70-some islands in the Aleutian chain across the North


Life here was somewhat more benign that in the Arctic, though wind

storms were sometimes strong enough to blow rocks around!

Since their food supply was rich, varied and readily available, the

Aleuts had time to develop a complex culture. Evidence indicates that they

practiced surgery and that their elaborate burial rituals included

embalming. Instruments. utensils, even their boats (baidars) were made with

amazing beauty and exact symmetry. And everything was fashioned for a

specific purpose--the Aleuts used 30 different kinds of harpoon heads for

different species of game!

Skilled navigators and sailors, the Aleuts had the dubious distinction

of being the first to encounter the white man...Russian fur traders who

took them as slaves to harvest the fur seals in the Pribilofs.

The Northwest Coast Indians:

High Society of Alaska’s Southeast

The milder, more temperate climate and an unlimited supply of salmon

and other seafood’s enabled the Northwest Coast Indians to evolve a way of

life quite different from the Eskimos, Aleuts and Athabascans.

They settled in year-round permanent villages, took slaves, gave

lavish potlatches, and lived their lives according to the strict rules,

rituals, and regulations of their respective clans. Their artwork was

nothing less than masterful...beautiful blankets, finely woven cedarbark

and spruceroot baskets magnificent totem creations.

From the Russian Empire to the United States of America


Treaty of Cession 15 Stat. 539 Treaty concerning the Cession of the

Russian Possessions in North America by his Majesty the Emperor of all the

Russias to the United States of America; Concluded March 30, 1867; Ratified

by the United States May 28, 1867; Exchanged June 20, 1867; Proclaimed by

the United States June 20, 1867. BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF

AMERICA A PROCLAMATION Whereas, a treaty between the United States of

America and his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias was concluded and

signed by their respective plenipotentiaries at the city of Washington, on

the thirtieth day of March, last, which treaty, being in the English and

French languages, is, word for word, as follows: The United States of

America and his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, being desirous of

strengthening, if possible, the good understanding which exists between

them, have, for that purpose, appointed as their Plenipotentiaries: the

President of the United States, William H. Seward, Secretary of State; and

His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, the Privy Councillor Edward de

Stoeckl his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the United

States. And the said Plenipotentiaries, having exchanged their full

powers, which were found to be in due form, have agreed upon and signed the

following articles: ARTICLE I His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias

agrees to cede to the United States, by this convention, immediately upon

the exchange of the ratifications thereof, all the territory and dominion

now possessed by his said Majesty on the continent of America and in the

adjacent islands, the same being contained within the geographical limits

herein set forth, to wit: The eastern limit is the line of demarcation

between the Russian and the British possessions in North America, as

established by the convention between Russia and Great Britain, of February

28 - 16, 1825, and described in Articles III and IV of said convention, in

the following terms: III. "Commencing from the southernmost point of the

island called Prince of Wales Island, which point lies in the parallel of

54 degrees 40 minutes north latitude, and between the 131st and the 133d

degree of west longitude (meridian of Greenwich,) the said line shall

ascend to the north along the channel called Portland channel, as far as

the point of the continent where it strikes the 56th degree of north

latitude; from this last-mentioned point, the line of demarcation shall

follow the summit of the mountains situated parallel to the coast as far as

the point of intersection of the 141st degree of west longitude (of the

same meridian;) and finally, from the said point of intersection, the said

meridian line of the 141st degree, in its prolongation as far as the Frozen

ocean. IV. "With reference to the line of demarcation laid down in the

preceding article, it is understood - "1st. That the island called Prince

of Wales Island shall belong wholly to Russia," (now, by this cession, to

the United States.) "2nd. That whenever the summit of the mountains which

extend in a direction parallel to the coast from the 56th degree of north

latitude to the point of intersection of the 141st degree of west longitude

shall prove to be at the distance of more than ten marine leagues from the

ocean, the limit between the British possessions and the line of coast

which is to belong to Russia as above mentioned (that is to say, the limit

to the possessions ceded by this convention) shall be formed by a line

parallel to the winding of the coast, and which shall never exceed the

distance of ten marine leagues therefrom." The western limit within which

the territories and dominion conveyed, are contained, passes through a

point in Behring's straits on the parallel of sixty-five degrees thirty

minutes north latitude, at its intersection by the meridian which passes

midway between the islands of Krusenstern, or Inaglook, and the island of

Ratmanoff, or Noonarbook, and proceeds due north, without limitation, into

the same Frozen ocean. The same western limit, beginning at the same

initial point, proceeds thence in a course nearly southwest through

Behring's straits and Behring's sea, so as to pass midway between the

northwest point of the island of St. Lawrence and the southeast point of

Cape Choukotski, to the meridian of one hundred and seventy-two west

longitude; thence, from the intersection of that meridian, in a

southwesterly direction, so as to pass midway between the island of Attou

and the Copper island of the Kormandorski couplet or group in the North

Pacific ocean, to the meridian of one hundred and ninety-three degrees west

longitude, so as to include in the territory conveyed the whole of the

Aleutian islands east of that meridian. ARTICLE II In the cession of

territory and dominion made by the preceding article are included the right

of property in all public lots and squares, vacant lands, and all public

buildings, fortifications, barracks, and other edifices which are not

private individual property. It is, however, understood and agreed, that

the churches which have been built in the ceded territory by the Russian

government, shall remain the property of such members of the Greek Oriental

Church resident in the territory, as may choose to worship therein. Any

government archives, papers and documents relative to the territory and

dominion aforesaid, which may be now existing there, will be left in the

possession of the agent of the United States; but an authenticated copy of

such of them as may be required, will be, at all times, given by the United

States to the Russian government, or to such Russian officers or subjects

as they may apply for. ARTICLE III The inhabitants of the ceded territory,

according to their choice, reserving their natural allegiance, may return

to Russia within three years; but if they should prefer to remain in the

ceded territory, they, with the exception of uncivilized native tribes,

shall be admitted to the enjoyment of all the rights, advantages, and

immunities of citizens of the United States, and shall be maintained and

protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty, property, and religion.

The uncivilized tribes will be subject to such laws and regulations as the

United States may, from time to time, adopt in regard to aboriginal tribes

of that country. ARTICLE IV His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias

shall appoint, with convenient despatch, an agent or agents for the purpose

of formally delivering to a similar agent or agents appointed on behalf of

the United States, the territory, dominion, property, dependencies and

appurtenances which are ceded as above, and for doing any other act which

may be necessary in regard thereto. But the cession, with the right of

immediate possession, is nevertheless to be deemed complete and absolute on

the exchange of ratifications, without waiting for such formal delivery.

ARTICLE V Immediately after the exchange of the ratifications of this

convention, any fortifications or military posts which may be in the ceded

territory shall be delivered to the agent of the United States, and any

Russian troops which may be in the territory shall be withdrawn as soon as

may be reasonably and conveniently practicable. ARTICLE VI In

consideration of the cession aforesaid, the United States agree to pay at

the treasury in Washington, within ten months after the exchange of the

ratifications of this convention, to the diplomatic representative or other

agent of his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, duly authorized to

receive the same, seven million two hundred thousand dollars in gold. The

cession of territory and dominion herein made is hereby declared to be free

and unencumbered by any reservations, privileges, franchises, grants, or

possessions, by any associated companies, whether corporate or incorporate,

Russian or any other, or by any parties, except merely private individual

property holders; and the cession hereby made, conveys all the rights,

franchises, and privileges now belonging to Russia in the said territory or

dominion, and appurtenances thereto. ARTICLE VII When this convention

shall have been duly ratified by the President of the United States, by and

with the advice and consent of the Senate, on the one part, and on the

other by his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, the ratifications

shall be exchanged at Washington within three months from the date hereof,

or sooner if possible. In faith whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries

have signed this convention, and thereto affixed the seals of their arms.

Done at Washington, the thirtieth day of March, in the year of our Lord one

thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven. [SEAL] WILLIAM H. SEWARD [SEAL]

EDOUARD DE STOECKL And whereas the said Treaty has been duly ratified

on both parts, and the respective ratifications of the same were exchanged

at Washington on this twentieth day of June, by William H. Seward,

Secretary of State of the United States, and the Privy Counsellor Edward de

Stoeckl, the Envoy Extraordinary of His Majesty the Emperor of all the

Russias, on the part of their respective governments, Now, therefore, be

it known that I, Andrew Johnson, President of the United States of America,

have caused the said Treaty to be made public, to the end that the same and

every clause and article thereof may be observed and fulfilled with good

faith by the United States and the citizens thereof. In witness whereof, I

have hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal of the United States to be

affixed. Done at the city of Washington, this twentieth day of June in the

year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven, and of the

Independence of the United States the ninety-first. [SEAL] ANDREW JOHNSON

By the President:

WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State

The most important dates in the history of Alaska

January 3

- in 1959, Alaska became the 49th State.

January 23

- in 1971, the temperature at Prospect Creek, Alaska, dropped to 80

degrees below zero, the lowest temperature ever recorded in the United


February 3

- in 1988, PL 100-241, the Alaska Native Claim Settlement Act

Amendments, were signed by President Regan. The amendments gave more

flexibilty to the corporations managing Settlement lands.

February 14

- in 1973, the Yukon Native Brotherhood presented a Statement of

Claim to the federal government, stating their position on land claims,

self-goverment and other issues which had been published in January in

"Together Today For Our Children Tomorrow".

February 16

- in 1944, the final weld on the Canol pipeline laid on by Bob

Shivel, 20 months after the project began.

February 22

- in 1951, after 3 years of rumours, the federal government

approved moving the capital of the Yukon from Dawson City to Whitehorse.

A new Federal Building was constructed in 1952, and the Territorial

Council chambers were moved the following year, with the first meeting

held in Whitehorse in April.

February 24

- in 1924, Carl Ben Eielson made Alaska's first Air Mail flight.

March (day unknown)

- in 1812, the Russian American Company establishes a post at Fort

Ross, California to grow crops for their Alaska operations.

March 12

- in 1914, a bill authorizing the construction of the government-

financed Alaska Railroad was signed by President Wilson. Construction

started in 1915, and some sections were opened as they were completed,

but the entire line, running from Seward to Fairbanks, was not completed

until July 15, 1923.

March 24

- in 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez went aground on Bligh Reef,

pouring almost 11 million gallons of oil into Prince William Sound.

March 27

- in 1964, an earthquake with a magnitude of 8.4 on the Richter

Scale hits the Anchorage area, killing 115 people and destroying hundreds

of homes.

- in 1975, the first section of pipe for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline

from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez was laid. By August, 21,600 people were

working on the project. The first oil was put through the 800-mile line

on June 20, 1977.

March 30

- in 1867, the United States purchased Alaska for $7,200,000

April 1

- in 1951, the Alaska Highway was turned over to Canada, in a

ceremony at Whitehorse.

April 3

- in 1898, a series of 5 avalanches in the Chilkoot Pass between

2:00 AM and noon killed over 70 people.

- in 1919, the Yukon finally allowed women to vote in Territorial

elections. Manitoba had been the first province to enfranchise women, in

1916, and federal enfranchisement was passed in May 1918.

May (day unknown)

- in 1904, the first commercial wireless communication facility in

the U.S. opened, between Nome and St. Michael.

May 7

- in 1906, the Alaska Delegate Act was passed by Congress, giving

the territory's 40,000 people the right to elect a non-voting delegate to


May 12

- in 1778, Captain James Cook entered Prince William Sound.

May 26

- in 1778, Captain James Cook entered Cook Inlet.

- in 1894, a resolution of the Privy Council authorizes the North-

West Mounted Police into the Yukon "in the interests of peace and good

government, in the interests also of the public revenue." By June 26,

Inspector Charles Constantine and Staff-Sergeant Charles Brown were at

Juneau, heading for the goldfields of the British Yukon.

- in 1900, Congress authorized a massive telegraph construction

project in Alaska.

May 28

- in 1898, the ice broke on Lake Bennett; within the next few

weeks, 7,080 boats carrying 28,000 people passed the NWMP post at Tagish.

May 29

- in 1993, the Umbrella Final Agreement is signed by

representatives of the Council for Yukon Indians and the Yukon and

federal governemnts, establishing the basic format for all 14 Yukon First

Nations land claims agreements.

June 3

- in 1942, a large carrier-based Japanese force attacked Dutch


June 7

- in 1942, the Japanese landed almost 2,500 troops on the Aleutian

islands of Attu and Kiska. It took a huge Allied force until August 15,

1943 to regain control - the final invasion force numbered 34,426 troops.

June 13

- in 1898, the Yukon Territory is created.

June 20

- in 197, the first oil was pumped throught the 800-mile Trans-

Alaska Pipeline from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez.

July (day unknown)

- in 1786, while charting Lituya Bay, 2 small boats are swamped by

rip tides, and 21 French sailors drown.

- in 1968, the oil riches of Alaska's North Slope, first reported

almost 100 years ago, were confirmed by a drilling program at Prudhoe

Bay. The following year, a total of $990,220,590 was bid in a one-day

lease sale of those properties.

July 2

- in 1882, George Krause becomes the first white man allowed to

cross the Chilkat Pass to the interior.

July 3

- in 1913, the first airplane in Alaska made a demonstration flight

at Fairbanks, piloted by James V. Lilly.

July 8

- in 1799, the Russian American Company is formed by Royal Charter;

they were given a 20-year monopoly on trading on the coast from 55

degrees north.

July 10

- in 1919, Louis Beauvette staked the first silver claim at Keno

Hill, in the central Yukon; by 1930 this district was producing 14% of

all the silver mined in Canada.

July 14

- in 1897, the Excelsior reaches San Francisco with the first large

shipment of Klondike gold.

July 15

- in 1923, the Alaska Railroad was completed, following 8 years of


July 16

- in 1741, Vitus Bering, on St. Elias Day, sights the Alaskan

mainland. In honour of the saint, the most prominent peak was named; this

was the first point on the northwest coast named by Europeans.

July 17

- in 1897, the Portland reached Seattle with a large shipment of

Klondike, turning the excitement caused by the Excelsior's arrival at San

Francisco into an all-out gold rush.

July 22

- in 1902, Felice Pedroni ("Felix Pedro") discovered gold in the

Tanana Hills, causing a stampede which resulted in the founding of


July 23

- in 1867, Alaska's first post office is authorized, to be opened

at Sitka.

July 27

- in 1868, the Customs Act is amended to include Alaska.

July 29

- in 1900, the White Pass & Yukon Route railroad was completed,

with the Golden Spike driven at Carcross, Yukon.

August (day not known)

- in 1876, twelve whaling ships are trapped by ice near Point

Barrow; 50 men die attempting to reach safety.

August 17

- in 1896, a party consisting of George Carmack, his wife Kate,

Skookum Jim, Tagish Charlie and Patsy Henderson stake placer gold claims

on Rabbit Creek, and rename the creek Bonanza Creek.

August 21

- in 1732, a Russian expedition under surveyor Mikhail Gvozdev

sights the Alaska mainland at Cape Prince of Wales.

- in 1852, Fort Selkirk is destroyed by a group of Tlingits who

objected to the Hudson's Bay Company trying to break the Tlingit monopoly

on trade with the interior tribes.

August 24

- in 1912, the Alaska Territorial Act was passed by Congress.

August 25

- in 1778, Captain James Cook turned back south, having reached

Lat. 71 North, Long. 197 West.

September (day not known)

- in 1848, the Hudson's Bay Company builds Fort Selkirk, at the

confluence of the Pelly and Yukon Rivers.

- in 1871, of the 41 whaling ships hunting in the Bering Sea, 32

are trapped by early ice; all of the 1,200 people on the ships escaped,

but 31 of the ships were destroyed the following spring.

- in 1898 gold was discovered near the future site of Nome,

triggering a stampede.

September 24

- in 1942, the Alaska Highway opened at Contact Creek, 305 miles

north of Fort Nelson, B.C.

September 25

- in 1745, a Russian fur hunter, Mikhail Nevodchikov, reaches Attu

in his search for sea otters.

October 2

- in 1895, the North-west Territories was divided into the

Districts of Franklin, Mackenzie, Ungava and Yukon.

October 7

- in 1869, the prediction of a total solar eclipse by American

scientist George Davidson so impressed Kohklux, chief of the Chilkat

Indian village of Klukwan, he drew him an incredibly detailed map of a

vast part of the interior of the Yukon and Alaska.

October 18

- in 1867, official ceremonies at Sitka transferred Alaska from

Russia to the United States.

October 25

- in 1918, the coastal steamer Princess Sophia sunk near Juneau,

killing 463 people, about 10% of the Yukon's white population.

November 6

- in 1967, Jean Gordon, the Yukon's first female member of the

Territorial Council, takes her seat.

December 8

- in 1741, Vitus Bering died after his ship was wrecked on an

island off the Alaskan coast.

December 18

- in 1971, the Alaska Native Claim Settlement Act (ANCSA) was

signed into law by the President. Among the major provisions were the

transfer of title to 40 million acres of land to native corporations, and

a cash payment of $962.5 million.


Информационная Библиотека
для Вас!


 Поиск по порталу: